the early-1990s, the Uralvagonzavod State Production Association had
developed and put into series production the T-90S new-generation
Russian gun-missile tank, incorporating the unique design solutions
and the best layout and structural features of the T-72 and T-80
Uralvagonzavod State Production Association developed the T-90S tank
following a thorough analysis and understanding of the tactics and
strategy of employment of tanks in a modern combat environment and on
the basis of extensive experience gained in the operation of the T-72
tank in different countries, including the results of their tests in
T-90S tank features characteristics that are typical of all other
Russian tanks: low weight, small size, powerful weaponry and high
weight of the combat laden tank is 46.5 tons and its crew is three
T-90S tank retains the basic national tank design concept, i.e. the
classical layout, where the main armament is arranged within a
rotating turret, the propulsion plant and transmission are arranged in
the hull's rear, and the crew members are seated separately: the
commander and the gunner sit in the fighting compartment, and the
driver in the driver's compartment.
The T-90S tank's main armament is represented by a 125mm
enhanced-accuracy smooth-bore gun mount featuring a built-in alignment
system and an easily detachable barrel. The gun is stabilized in two
planes and loaded by an autoloader, whose magazine stores 22 rounds to
be fired first. The use of the autoloader has made it possible to
bring the rate of fire to 7 or 8 rounds per minute, which is a
significant advantage of this tank over the majority of its foreign
high level of fire power has been achieved through the installation of
a gun that features better ballistic properties. It is also
attributable to the enhanced gun's firing accuracy and longer range
(including firing missiles), application of more powerful ammunition,
improved characteristics of the fire control system, and reduced
first-round firing preparation time.
capabilities of the tank's gun have been increased and, with the
introduction of a guided weapons system, it can engage land-based
armored and low-flying air targets. The guided weapons system employs
a laser beam riding shaped-charge missile which is chambered by the
autoloader and then fired through the tube.
tank's ammunition allowance includes the armor-piercing discarding
sabot, shaped-charge and high-explosive separate-loading projectiles,
as well as one guided missile round.
tank's auxiliary armament includes a 7.62mm machine gun, coaxial with
the main ordnance, and a 12.7mm antiaircraft machine-gun mount.
tank is propelled by a traditional diesel engine, which has the
following major advantages in comparison with a gas-turbine plant
(particularly in hot climates and sandy terrain):
only a minor power drop under high ambient temperatures;
– highly effective air cleaning and, as a result, high reliability
of the engine in dusty areas;
– lower (1.8 to 2 times) fuel consumption.
cost-effective propulsion plant installed on the T-90S tank enables
the vehicle to develop a speed of up to 60 km/h and perform autonomous
marches up to 550 km long without refueling.
every unit or system of this tank incorporates at least one new
quality. The greatest improvement is the automated fire control
system, allowing the commander and gunner to conduct aimed fire from
the tank gun effectively over long ranges using projectiles and guided
missiles, on the move and at halt, against moving and stationary
targets, by day and night, as well as to fire the coaxial machine gun.
automated fire control system provides for:
increased effective firing range;
– commander's stabilized battlefield observation capability,
increased vision and firing range at night, overriding of the gun and
machine-gun fire control;
– gunner's increased night vision capability, including the use of
an IR sight.
automated fire control system is comprised of:
a laser beam riding weapons system which makes it possible to fire a
guided missile through the gun barrel on the move and at halt against
fixed and moving targets at a distance of 100 to 5,000 m and kill the
most sophisticated tank long before it comes within the effective
range of its weapons systems;
– an optronic suppression system protecting the vehicle against semi automatically
guided antitank missiles;
– an automatic all-round surveillance and detection system used to
protect the tank against antitank projectiles fitted with laser homing
heads. The system automatically jams laser range finders and target
designators of antitank weapons control systems;
– an antiaircraft machine-gun mount enabling the commander, using
the remote control drives and remaining under the protection of armor,
to deliver aimed fire at air targets, and in stabilized mode – at
– reactive armor protection effective against armor-piercing
discarding sabot and shaped-charge projectiles. The combination of the
reactive armor protection with the laminated armor expands the tank's
combat capabilities and enhances its ability to survive in extreme
– a 1,000 hp turbo-supercharged diesel engine that has dramatically
enhanced the vehicle's battlefield mobility and maneuverability
– an air conditioner improving the crew's comfort.
Implementation in the T-90S tank of some design innovations and
application of up-to-date and future technologies have enhanced the
tank's efficiency, operational capabilities, reliability and
maneuverability. They have resulted in combat and technical
characteristics overall 1.5 times the effectiveness of the T-72S tank.
Such enhancements have been made due to:
application of a new-generation fire control system;
– application of unique antitank systems featuring laser guidance
and range finding facilities;
– improved fire control systems featuring a precise stabilizer and
– enhanced properties of reactive armor and armor protection
capability against hollow-charge and kinetic-energy projectiles;
– antiaircraft machine-gun mount remotely controlled from the
– increased-power diesel engine.
installation of the new equipment, enhancing the T-90S tank's combat,
operational and maintenance characteristics, left its overall
dimensions approximately the same as those of the T-72S, except that
it has become 2 tons heavier than its predecessor. Yet, the T-90S tank
remains 8.1 to 8.7 tons lighter than Leclerc and Leopard-2, 10.7 tons
lighter than M1A1 Abrams, and 16 tons lighter than the Challenger.
T-90S tank features:
– automatic crew protection against weapons of mass destruction;
– anti-mine protection facilities;
– a quick-acting automatic fire-fighting system;
– new-generation communications facilities;
– design and technological solutions, reducing the probability of
detection and destruction of the tank.
of the tank's combat capabilities has made the vehicle more complex.
Seemingly, this must lead to difficulties in its operation and
maintenance, increase the time of its preparation for combat and
require additional rigging. But neither of the above consequences have
occurred because of the implementation of unique solutions in the
T-90S tank is noted for:
– optimal adaptability to strenuous combat environments;
– high reliability of all units, assemblies and systems;
– excellent mobility and maneuverability regardless of road
conditions, including high dust and mountains;
– low costs incurred in the training of skilled personnel.
T-90S tank can:
– perform underwater crossing of water obstacles up to 5 m deep and
continue the assigned mission after the obstacle has been waded;
– without preparation:
* ford water obstacles up to 1.2 m deep;
* negotiate a trench up to 2.8 m wide;
* negotiate a vertical obstacle up to 0.8 m high;
* negotiate maximum gradient up to 30o.
T-90S tank is equipped with facilities to self-dig a hull-down
position, and fittings for mounting mine-clearing equipment and can be
shipped by any type of transport.
T-90S Russian battle tank embodies advanced scientific solutions and
in terms of its combat and technical characteristics is not inferior
to the best foreign tanks, rather, it outdoes them in some parameters.
tank's combat efficiency rises materially when used in cooperation
with highly maneuverable engineering and technical support armored
operational planning, training of personnel and conduct of maintenance
procedures become much simpler if the tanks have a single base.
family of engineer-support armored vehicles developed by the
Uralvagonzavod State Production Association from the T-90S tank retain
the mobility, reliability and high standard of crew protection typical
of the baseline tank. Due to this fact, the vehicles can be employed
within tank units without any restraints. The following
engineer-support armored vehicles have been developed:
BREM-1 multipurpose armored recovery vehicle;
– IMR-2MA mine and obstacle clearance vehicle;
– MTU-72 track bridge transportation and laying armored tracked
unified chassis used in the production of tanks and armored vehicles
and, consequently, similar operational and maintenance
characteristics, as well as single signal communications and
maintenance and repair systems, is what all armies in the world are
problem has been solved successfully on the T-90S tank.
enormous production base and skilled personnel perform the requisite
servicing of tanks manufactured by the Uralvagonzavod Association,
both in Russia and abroad.
cite an example, from the early-1950s to the present the
Uralvagonzavod has been supplying spare parts to the operators of
T-54, T-55, T-62 and T-72 tanks and engineer-support armored vehicles
developed on the basis of these tanks to maintain the equipment in
constant combat readiness